Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University Journal (BCESUJ) <p><strong>Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University Journal (BCESUJ)</strong> is an open access journal that follows double-blind peer review process and published <strong>quarterly (January, April, July and October)</strong>.</p> <ul> <li><strong>Publishing coverage years</strong>: from 2000 to Present</li> <li><strong>Publisher:</strong> Baghdad College of Economic Sciences University</li> <li><strong>Print- ISSN: 2072-778X</strong></li> <li><strong>Online -ISSN: 2789-8571</strong></li> <li><strong>Publishing Language:</strong> Arabic and English</li> </ul> <p>The journal covers all aspects of <strong>Econometrics. Business and Management, Accounting ,Financial and Banking Sciences (miscellaneous), Computer Sciences (miscellaneous) , Computer Engineering and Information Technology (miscellaneous), Statistics and Mathematics (miscellaneous) </strong>Scopes<strong>.</strong></p> <p>The aim of this journal is to provide original and high contributed research articles to a wide audience in its fields. The paper is accepted by prestigious interdisciplinary editorial board, after judged to be truly outstanding and to be of interest. The articles are available in full-text and free of charge to journal web visitors.</p> <p><strong>The Journal is the recipient of two Acknowledgment Letters at 2009 and 2012 from the Iraqi Ministry of Higher Education and Scientific Research</strong>.</p> en-US [email protected] (Secretariat of the Journal ) [email protected] (Dr. Zainab N. Al-Qudsy) Wed, 17 May 2023 09:24:43 +0000 OJS 60 The role of waste reduction in enhancing green competitive advantage: a field study in the General Company for Textile and Leather Industry in Baghdad <p><strong>Abstract:</strong></p> <p>The current research aims to know the severity of reducing waste by green competitive advantage in the General Company for the Textile and Leather Industry in Baghdad. The research problem can be formulated in the following question: Is there an effect to reduce waste in the green competitive advantage in the research sample company?</p> <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; For the purpose of achieving the goal of the research, the descriptive analytical method was used, and a questionnaire was prepared to collect the necessary data, which is a measure of the research. The questionnaire was distributed to a sample that was taken randomly according to the equation of Stephen Thompson. 154), and to test the research hypotheses, a set of statistical methods were adopted and based on the statistical program (SPSS.V.25) and the program (SMART PLS V.3.3.9). This research reached a set of conclusions, the most important of which are: that the waste reduction variable affects the competitive advantage Green in the company sample search.</p> Dr. Prof. Qasim Naif Alwan, Aliyaa Mohammed saleh Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 17 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Knowledge Dynamics and Role in Achieving of Management of Customer Experience <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; The current research dealt with private banking sector in Baghdad, and from it the research problem was launched to answer extent to which the surveyed bank administrations realized the importance of the research variables represented by (knowledge dynamics<strong>,</strong> customer experience management) and is there relationship between these two variables, and the research aimed to analyze relationship between research variables in descriptive analysis And practically for relationship of knowledge dynamics as an independent variable and management of customer experience as a variable dependent on the research community represented by private banks, and in order to achieve these goals, the field of research (10) banks as research community was chosen<strong>: </strong>Middle East, Iraqi investment, Iraqi National, Babylon, Commercial gulf, &nbsp;Islamic Elaf The Iraqi Federation, the Islamic National, Ashur International, International Development, sample was represented by (120) managers in surveyed banks</p> Nadia Dakhil Enad Al-lami, Lamyaa Salman Ali Abd al-Zubaidi Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 17 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Suppliers selection using Fuzzy Technique for Order Preferences by Similarity to Ideal Solution method (FTOPSIS) Acase study at Ur general company in Dhi Qar <p>The aim of the research is to achieve the selection of suppliers by using one of the multi-criteria decision-making methods, which is the&nbsp; (Fuzzy Technique for order preference by similarity to ideal solution, to take advantage of the of this approach and to achieve maximum savings in time and cost and reduce the times related to receiving the materials needed by the organization and based on the intellectual and field problem, the question can be raised The following is how to achieve the company's competitive advantages, achieve the least time and reduce the level of inventory, based on the correct scientific foundations in selecting suppliers? It has been relied on the use of indicators and mathematical equations to apply this approach to select the suppliers in Ur company. The method was built and programmed within the programming language (Matlab). As for the most prominent recommendations, the factory administration’s dependence on the entrance, as it leads to reducing costs, increasing the efficiency of selecting suppliers, reducing waiting times and delivery periods, and reducing production costs, which is reflected in the performance of the processing group in the company, the research sample.</p> <p>Among the most important results that the researcher reached from applying the te Fuzzy Technique&nbsp; for Order Preferences by Similarity&nbsp; to Ideal Solution methodfor the suppliers 15 and according to the computational steps for this method</p> Bushra Sabeeh Kadhim, Maha Kamel Jawad Copyright (c) 2023 Wed, 17 May 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The effect of marketing dexterity on sustainable competitive advantage <p>The current research aims to diagnose the type and level of influence of marketing prowess on sustainable competitive advantage. (66) individuals from the directors of departments and branches, assistant directors of departments, division officials, employees of the planning and marketing department, and salesmen in the National Insurance Company in Baghdad. The questionnaire was used as a tool for collecting data and information. It was prepared by the researcher after it was subjected to arbitration and to test the validity and reliability, in addition to the researcher’s field presence and the use of observation. Arithmetic, standard deviation, coefficient of variation, simple linear regression equation, and the research showed significant results represented by a positive relationship between the research variables, and the researcher reached a number of conclusions, most notably marketing ingenuity is an effective way to achieve a sustainable competitive advantage, The conclusion of the research was a set of recommendations, most notably the need for the company in question to adopt modern techniques and methods that facilitate the completion of its activities represented in the search for opportunities that it must seize and the threats that it may face.</p> Fatima Bassem Fadel, Firas Muhammad Al-Amiri Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Impact Of Value Engineering Technology On Improving Customer Value Analytical study of a sample of private hospitals in Baghdad <p>The variables of the current research in the recent period have received increasing attention for being one of the important and influential topics on the future of service institutions, especially health ones, as the customer (the patient) is considered one of the most important elements that are focused on in the production process and the provision of goods and services. From this point of view, the research problem has been identified through the large gap that has emerged and aggravated in the field of institutions seeking to improve the value provided to the customer through the commodity or service provided to him, especially health care institutions that are looking to attract this customer (patient) and improve the value provided to him. The problem also emerged about the nature and level of interest in the dimensions of value engineering and customer value in hospitals, the research sample, and the extent of the impact of the dimensions of value engineering technology in improving the value of the patient. To study this, the research adopted a test of the type and direction of the relationship between value engineering technology as an independent variable and customer value as a responsive variable. The aim of the current research is to test and determine the technical relationship of value engineering in improving customer value. A number of hypotheses have been formulated for this purpose, the most important of which is finding the correlation and influence relationship between the value engineering variable and the customer value. The field research method was used by distributing a questionnaire to a sample of department managers and people's officials from doctors, their number reached (97) doctors in three private hospitals: the International Hospital, Al-Moayad Hospital, and Al-Qimma Hospital. As for the most prominent conclusions, it was represented: that all the correlation and influence relationships of value engineering technology with customer value were good and with moral significance. The research concluded with a set of recommendations, the most important of which were: Hospitals should devote their efforts in the field of service value engineering technology and employ it in improving customer value through special programs designed for this purpose.</p> Zaid Mohammed Abdulrahman Al.Adhami, Maha Abdulkareem H. Alrawi Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Relation of some Ambidextrous Leadership Behavior to Avoiding Strategic Drift <p>The research aims to diagnose the phenomenon of strategic drift, which is a negative phenomenon that is meant by the gradual deterioration of the organization. Because of the organizations failure to recognize changes in the business environment and respond to them for many determinants, including the absence of strategic planning, the limited focus on the external environment, the weak response to change, the rigidity of the organizational culture, the weak leadership and the absence of policies.</p> <p>The research also aims to find out&nbsp; the availability of ambidextrous leaders behaviors from open and closed(balanced)in the departments of the Ministry of Agriculture. It is the research community that was chosen to conduct the field research, where an intentional sample was determined that includes the assistant general manager, the general manager, the director of the department, the assistant director of the department and the official of his division, through (124)questionnaires distributed for the purpose, and the(SPSS)statistical package was relied on to do the statistical analysis of the data. and the&nbsp; research started from hypotheses:&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;</p> <p>The first hypotheses: (there is no statistically significant relationship between ambidextrous leadership and avoiding strategic drift)&nbsp; ,the second hypothesis: (there is no significant effect between the dimensions of ambidextrous leadership together in avoiding strategic drift).</p> <p>The most prominent conclusions: There are ambidextrous leaders&nbsp; in the ministry's offices with closed behaviors compared to open behaviors with the absence of strategic planning at a large level, as it ranked first in terms of dimensions of the strategic drift variable, which indicated &nbsp;the presence of strategic drift.</p> <p>the researchers suggested conducting future&nbsp; studies to apply the passive model (&nbsp; Alshebli,2016)&nbsp; to address the situation and phenomenon of strategic drift. through its reliance on a deep analysis of the external and internal environments and conducting the rehabilitation of individuals across the level and layers of stakeholders and lead change to ensure the successful implementation of the strategy and encourage innovation by stimulating the minds of human resources and taking their ideas and applying them with the management of culture to accommodate the fast- growing aspects related to public and private organizations in the Iraqi government sector to address the&nbsp; phenomenon of strategic drift.&nbsp;</p> Walaa Ismail Abdel Latif, Ghada Mahdi Abed Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Distance education and its impact on operational costs in educational institutions <p>The research aims to define the principles of distance education represented by me (strategic planning, information technology and improving the educational process) and its role in reducing the operational cost by surveying the opinions of a sample of principals in private schools in Akkar Governorate, which amounted to 102 principals by adopting the electronic questionnaire as a main tool in collecting data using with the software on the Google Form app</p> <p>Where the research reached a series of results, the most important of which is the existence of a relationship and influence between the principles of distance education and operating costs in the schools concerned. And because the operational cost of private educational institutions is linked to the system and type of education, in order to link the budget and cost of the equipment used, the number of employees, etc., and to know the impact of education and its type on all aspects</p> <p>Hence, after entering the distance education system in private schools in Akkar Governorate, we studied its impact on the operational cost. Finally, after careful study of all components of the research, and through the results that we reached through the statistical analysis program spss for this research, we made some suggestions and recommendations.</p> Khaled Abdel Fattah Moussa Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The role of oil revenues in building the foundations of the Iraqi economy for the period (1995-2018) <p>The research aims at the role of oil revenues in building the foundations of the Iraqi economy for the period (2018-1995) The most important finding of the research of oil revenues is positive effects in the case of optimal allocation of those revenues to serve the economy and society through Providing the necessary funds to implement national investment projects and improve the reality of the production system to serve economic diversification And negative effects in the absence of effective management of these oil revenues and the lack of a clear vision for development in light of the reality that witnesses the failure of economic policies.</p> <p>&nbsp; The most important recommendations of the research are building an efficient economic administration with a national will capable of employing huge oil revenues And use it in investment fields with high economic returns, such as industrial projects and agricultural projects, So that it creates front and back links between them, as well as increasing the positive effects on the national economy now and in the future.</p> Sami hamed Abbas Al-Jumaili , Riyad Jubair Mutlaq Al-Jumaili Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The independence of the compliance observer and its impact on the phenomenon of money laundering <p>The study aimed to demonstrate the independence of the compliance observer described by legislation and laws, and to indicate the impact of the independence of the compliance observer in the financial institution within which he works in drafting his reports submitted to the Central Bank, and to achieve these objectives and measure the extent of independence of the compliance observer and its impact in confronting the phenomenon of money laundering and obtaining data. In the crisis, a questionnaire was designed and distributed to the Compliance Department, the Money Laundering Reporting Department, the Executive Management and the Internal Audit Department for the research sample, and (8) Iraqi governmental and private banks (commercial and Islamic) were selected, and the number of questionnaire forms that were distributed to banks (86) questionnaires, and a questionnaire was (84) questionnaire forms were retrieved, including (80) that fulfilled the conditions of the analysis, and (4) questionnaire forms did not meet the conditions of the analysis, as they were subjected through the ready-made statistical program (spss v.28) to the statistical analysis, and reached the most important results that are not given to the compliance observer Customer data reported by the Reporting Department, not looking at the reports but the Compliance Controller reviewing the activities of the Money Laundering Reporting Department, because the Money Laundering Reporting Department independently</p> Acer Yassin Fahd, Youssef Fawzi Dhary Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The role of banking supervision as a supporting body in reducing the phenomenon of tax evasion in commercial companies <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Due to technological developments, a set of solutions have been taken into consideration to assist the tax administration in obtaining information that helps access the real income of taxpayers from commercial companies and prevent cases of tax evasion, whether partial or total, by making use of the information reached by the supervisory committees formed by the Bank The central bank to supervise the external transfer of foreign currency for the purpose of import, and the impact of this on the work of the tax administration and its role in reducing tax evasion practiced by some taxpayers through manipulation of accounts submitted to the administration has been highlighted. management suffers, The research gains its importance from the importance of the research in showing the use of banking control information as a support body for the work of the tax administration to reduce tax evasion, and focus on commercial companies and how to account for tax for the result of their activity. For import, the study reached a number of results, the most important of which are: The presence of a large number of taxpayers who do not declare all their commercial activities for the purpose of reducing the tax base and thus reducing the amount of tax, and this is called partial tax evasion.</p> sarah thamer nafea nafea , sarah mahmood Hussein , ola Sameer sabti Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determining financial & Non-financial Balanced Score Card Endoscopes Indicators in improving the content of integrated reporting informatio <p>Contemporary developments in the work environment of the economic unit require the availability of information systems that meet the needs of stakeholders with a comprehensive and detailed view of performance. Integrated reporting includes elements to meet these needs, and the prevalence of the application of this reporting is still a subject of debate among academics, business unit workers, and legislators. Part of the reason for this may be that integrated reporting is a complex process that includes a series of activities and not just a result in the form of integrated reporting, and for effective integrated reporting, economic units need a comprehensive review of economic processes, this means recognizing the economic, social and environmental elements and variables and the associated processes, principles and ethical values. All of these important internal mechanisms point to significant challenges during the implementation of the integrated reporting framework. The balanced scorecard can contribute to overcoming some of the obstacles that prevent any unit from implementing the integrated reporting framework, including improving the disclosure of intangible assets. Therefore, the interest in this subject through the statement of the balanced score card perspectives and the perspectives that can be developed for the possibility of using them in evaluating the level of reporting integrated reports and suggesting a mechanism aimed at improving the information of integrated reporting and evaluating performance using the balanced scorecard by adapting the local environment variables in this direction according to the accounting system of companies.</p> Imad Sobeih Faraj Al-Saffar, Huda Mohammed Reda Mohamed Jawad Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The role of environmental costs in achieving competitive advantage in economic units <p>&nbsp;The research aims to study the impact of environmental costs in achieving competitive advantage in economic units. In achieving the competitive advantage As the environmental costs were measured through the production stages and the classification of environmental costs in the Kufa Cement Factory, the research sample, as for the method of data collection, it was relied on data related to costs and trial balance, which were obtained from the financial and production departments (research sample) to reach the results, and after testing the research hypotheses, a set of conclusions was reached, represented by the importance of the system applied in the economic unit (the research sample) to include identification and disclosure of environmental cost activities as well as disclosure in the financial statements of environmental information such as environmental assets and liabilities, expenditures and revenues related to the environment&nbsp; And protecting them, and thus this will lead to making correct administrative decisions and choosing appropriate alternatives, resulting in the production of environmentally friendly products or less environmental damage than products that are not environmentally friendly and in a way that helps achieve the competitive advantage of those units.</p> Kawakib Ali Mhalhal , muqdad Ahmed Nouri Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Special financial statements as an input to enhance the relevance of financial and non-financial information <p>&nbsp;The research aims to clarify the concept of private financial statements and their role in enhancing the appropriateness of financial and non-financial information through preparing special financial lists containing financial and non-financial information based on the various needs of users to help them make their decisions. For the purpose of testing the hypotheses of the study, a questionnaire was used, and it was distributed to the research sample represented by the commercial banks, the General Company for Electrical Industries, the Iraq Stock Exchange and the Office of Financial Supervision.&nbsp; This is in order to help the various users in making their own decisions because it contains financial or non-financial information that is suitable for the various needs of users.</p> Dalya Haitham Khalil, Safwan Qusai Abd Al Halim Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Determining financial & Non-financial Balanced Score Card Endoscopes Indicators in improving the content of integrated reporting information <p>&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp;&nbsp; Protecting the environment and reducing costs are among the goals that economic units seek to achieve in order to be in line with the global trend to protect natural resources and produce environmentally friendly products and at the same time get rid of the obligations incurred by economic units from environmental costs, fines and high production costs. The research aims to study the knowledge bases of the strategy Cleaner production and identification of costs that can be reduced during the production stages and a statement of the obstacles facing the application of cleaner production and proposals to address these obstacles and the role of the cleaner production strategy in reducing costs, and the researcher concluded that cleaner production is a strategy used by the economic unit for the purpose of preserving the environment from all forms of pollution that are It has negative effects on society, in addition to the optimal use of the unit’s resources, which contributes to reducing costs and increasing profitability. The researcher recommends the necessity of focusing economic units on producing environmentally friendly products as they contribute to saving resources and energy and do not harm the environment during use and avoid environmental costs and fines for emissions and pollution resulting from the manufacturing process Thus, it contributes to reducing costs and raising the competitive advantage of the economic unit.</p> Miaad hameed Ali, Hiba Mahmood Mohammed Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 Impact Of Qualified Auditors On The Finance Performance Of Private Sector Organizations <p>Since private sector firms, particularly banks, are the main and most significant financial intermediaries in the majority of nations, they are essential to economic development. Deposits, short-term capital, and borrowed money are the three basic funding sources for banks. Banks make investments in many financial goods. The most typical uses of bank funds are loans, securities, and reserves. The two primary items on a bank's balance sheet are loans and deposits. Due to financial liberalization, globalization, and technology advancements, bank management and operations have changed during the past three decades. This paper uses a survey to examine the effects on internal audit quality</p> Bassam Ameen Sabri Bediwi, Anas Ibrahim yousif , Akram Khashea Bediwi Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000 The Approximate Solution To The Dynamics of The Observed-State Feed Back Control System by Walsh Functions <p>The present paper deals with the application of Walsh functions based on integration operational matrix to the dynamics of the observed –state&nbsp; feedback control system. Walsh method is used because its simple analysis, studying and easier implementation based on some steps to reach the solution of the observed-state feedback control system . An&nbsp; example is taken to explain the method depending on Matlab programming. The results show that the proposed method is very accurate and efficient when compared to existing exact solution</p> Khalid Hadi Hameed Al-jourany Copyright (c) 2023 Sat, 15 Apr 2023 00:00:00 +0000